subordinating conjunction dalam bahasa Inggris

Subordinating Conjunction dalam bahasa Inggris

Diantara jenis-jenis conjunctions (coordinating, correlative, dan subordinating), subordinating conjunctions merupakan kata hubung yang paling sulit untuk dikenali. Namun, itu bukan berarti Anda tidak bisa menguasainya. Faktanya, Anda mungkin sering menggunakan kata hubung ini tanpa menyadari bahwa conjunction itulah yang disebut dengan subordinating conjunction.

Lalu, apa itu subordinating conjunction?kata apa saja yang termasuk jenis kata hubung ini, dan bagaimana penggunaannya dalam kalimat?

A subordinating conjunction is a word or phrase that links a dependent clause to an independent clause. This word or phrase indicates that a clause has informative value to add to the sentence’s main idea. It signals a cause-and-effect relationship, and a shift in time or place between the two clauses.


A subordinating conjunction adalah salah satu jenis conjunction berupa kata yang menghubungkan dependent clause dan independent clause. Kata hubung ini mengindikasikan bahwa suatu klausa (dependent clause) membutuhkan tambahan informasi lainnya (independent clause). Sehingga kalimat tersebut memiliki ide utama yang dapat menunjukkan hubungan sebab-akibat, atau keterangan waktu dan tempat diatantara dua klausa.

Dengan kata lain, subordinating conjunction berfungsi sebagai penghubung antara klausa utama (main clause/independent clause) dengan subordinating atau dependent clause. Dependent clause adalah klausa yang belum bisa berdiri sendiri sebagai sebuah kalimat, karena maknanya belum komplit. Klausa ini menjadi tambahan informasi untuk klausa utama/independent clause).

(NOTE: Independent clause adalah klausa yang terdiri dari pasangan subjek-verb, dan dapat berdiri sendiri sebagai sebuah kalimat yang utuh. Contohnya "It was raining" adalah independent clause; subjeknya adalah "it" dan verbnya "was raining." Sedangkan dependent clause adalah klausa yang tidak dapat berdiri sendiri sebagai sebuah kalimat karena masih membuhkan klausa lain agar kalimatnya make sense.

Subordinating conjunction dikenal juga dengan subordinators, subordinate conjunctions, dan complementizers. Kebanyakan subordinators hanya terdiri dari satu kata seperti because, before, dan when. Namun, ada beberapa conjunction yang juga terdiri lebih dari satu kata seperti even though, as long as, dan except that.


Subordinate Conjunctions yang umumnya digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris antara lain: than, rather than, whether, as much as, whereas, that, whatever, which, whichever, after, as soon as, as long as, before, by the time, now that, once, since, till, until, when, whenever, while, though, although, even though, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, where, wherever, if, only if, unless, provided that, assuming that, even if, in case (that), lest, how, as though, as if, because, since, so that, in order (that), that, as …

Dilansir dari 7ESL, ada sembilan kategori subordinating conjunctions dalam bahasa Inggris. Kategori-kategori ini menunjukkan bagaimana subordinate conjunction menghubungkan independent clause dan dependent clause. Setiap kategori subordinator conjunction menunjukkan perbedaan hubungan antara independent clause dan dependent clause.






rather than


as much as


He is cleverer than me.

I will have coffee rather than tea.

You must decide whether you are going by plan or by train.

I drink as much as you.

Budi is blond whereas his sister has dark hair.

Relative Adjective





He went to the school that my father went to.

I always listen whatever he says.

The book which I bought was expensive.

Nurul will wear his black or red dress, whichever is clean.



as soon as

as long aas


by the time

now that








Bella is very happy after buying that new bag.

A baby deer can stand as soon as it is born.

You can use my car as long as you drive carefully.

He always cooks his breakfast before going to the office.

By the time the ambulance arrived he was unconcius.

You can go home now that you have finished your task.

Once you learn it, you will never forget it.

I lived here since I was child.

Bella lives with her parents till she is twenty-five.

You can stay here until your parent pick you up.

My parents were very happy when I passed the test.

Whenever I go abroad, I take picture as many as possible.

While I was walking to the market, I met Rina.




even though

Though it was raining, she went out.

Although the house is small, it is well design.

Although the house is small, it is well design.

Relative Pronoun






The person who buy that house is my brother.

Whoever leaves last should turn off the light.

She is the woman whom he loves.

He was free to marry whomever he chose.

She is the student whose handwriting is the best in my class.




This is the park where we played.

Wherever you go, I will be with you.



only if


provided that

assuming that

even if

in case


If you leave you will be lonely.

Only if the teacher gives permission, you can leave the class.

You will not succed, unless you work hard.

I was allowed to go by myself provided that I am careful.

I hope to study therer, assuming that I passed the exam.

Even if you have bought your ticket, you still need to wait.

I have my umbrella with me in case it rains.

Study hard lest you should fail.



as though

as if

She taught her how to play the piano.

They look as though they're heading for divorce.

At sunset, the sun looks as if it is going down.




so that

in order (that)


I believe he will pass the test because he has studied hard.

It's okay to make a mistake since it was your first writing.

I will go by car so that I can take more luggage.

Do exercise in order that your health may improve.

He played game all evening as he had nothing to do.


Berikut ini adalah aturan-aturan penggunaan jenis conjunction ini dilansir dari :

1. Main clause diikuti oleh subordinate clause; tanda koma tidak digunakan. Contohnya

– Amber rubbed her eyes as she opened a new training article.
– I prefer to write while my children are at school.

2. Subordinate clause diikuti oleh main clause. Jika kalimat diawali dengan dependent clause/subordinate clause, maka harus digunakan tanda komma setelah klausa ini sebelum independent/main clause.

 While Drew sets up the trading show booth, Jon explains BKA services to some interested guests.
 Although Katie assured me it was OK, I felt terrible about asking for a writing extension.

3. Main clause dan relative clause yang penting. Apabila relative pronoun digunakan untuk memperjelas noun (kata benda), maka relative clause ini penting untuk menjadi elemen kalimat, dan tidak perlu digunakan tanda koma sebelum relative pronoun. Begitupun jika relative clause digunakan untuk menyanggah (interrupted) independent/main clause, tanda koma tidak perlu digunakan.

– I like to type in the bedroom where the ceiling fan is located.
– Sharon graciously edited the articles that were due later that day.
– Interrupted: I can usually tell when my neighbor who owns an old truck leaves for work in the morning.

4. Main clause dan relative clause yang tidak penting. Penggunaan relative clause disebut tidak penting jika mengikuti noun (kata benda) yang sudah spesifik. Apabila relative clause ini digunakan untuk menjadi elemen kalimat, maka gunakan tanda koma sebelumnya, termasuk jika relative clause ini digunakan untuk menyanggah main clause.

– Few people enjoy May 4th as much as Greg, who loves Star Wars.
– I curled up to read the first book of The Prydain Chronicleswhich is one of my favorite series.
– Interrupted: When it comes to law articles, Claudia, who is a legal whiz, knows just what to write.

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